# Installing python scripts¶

This here is to explain to myself how Python distutils, setuptools and pip install scripts on Unix and Windows.

The repository at http://github.com/matthew-brett/myscripter has some worked running examples of script installation in different situations.

Note

## The main problem¶

As we will see, the main problem is that the standard python installation mechanism, distutils, uses the first line of a script to get the Python interpreter that will run the script. A first line of a typical python script in Unix might look like this:

#!/usr/local/bin/python


This is called the shebang line, from “hash-bang” - referring to the hash (#) and exclamation (!) characters. The shebang line tells Unix : “Run the rest of this script via the interpreter /usr/local/bin/python”.

When you install python scripts with a certain python interpreter, say /usr/local/bin/python2.6, distutils changes this line in the installed script, to:

#!/usr/local/bin/python2.6


That way we can associate the script with the installing version of Python.

Now the problem; there is no shebang mechanism in Windows. That means that distutils’ trick for Unix will have no useful effect on Windows.

## The problem by example¶

In standard distutils, you tell your setup.py that some files are scripts. Let’s make a trivial setup.py:

from os.path import join as pjoin
from distutils.core import setup

setup(
name = 'myscripter',
version = '0.1',
scripts=[pjoin('bin', 'myscript')]
)


and a script bin/myscript:

#!/usr/local/bin/python
import sys
print("Python starts at " + sys.prefix)


Note the shebang line pointing to /usr/local/bin/python.

Install into a virtualenv:

virtualenv venv
. venv/bin/activate # on Unix
python setup.py install
deactivate


The contents of ./venv/bin/myscript are (in my case):

#!/Users/mb312/dev_trees/myscripter/venv/bin/python
import sys
print("Python starts at " + sys.prefix)


Note the new shebang line, imported from the python doing the installation.

Here is the contents of the installed script on Windows, after running the equivalent steps:

#!C:\repos\myscripter\venv\Scripts\python.exe
import sys
print("Python starts at " + sys.prefix)


Again, distutils has modified the Python path in the shebang line. But this time, the shebang is useless, because:

(venv) C:\repos\myscripter>myscript
'myscript' is not recognized as an internal or external command,
operable program or batch file.
(venv) C:\repos\myscripter>venv\Scripts\myscript
'venv\Scripts\myscript' is not recognized as an internal or external command,
operable program or batch file.


We could make the script executable on Windows by adding a .py extension. This will associate the file with the default system python, not the Python doing the installation; it is the python doing the installation that we want:

(venv) C:\repos\myscripter>copy venv\Scripts\myscript venv\Scripts\myscript.py
1 file(s) copied.

(venv) C:\repos\myscripter>venv\Scripts\myscript.py
Python starts at C:\Python26


This could be very confusing, because scripts installed in virtualenv, or by another python (such as Python3) will nevertheless run via the default system python.

Thus far, not good for us on Windows.

## setuptools - scripts in eggs¶

In “setuptools” I include installation methods using setuptools or its variants, meaning pip and setuptools itself.

With the setup.py above, setuptools variants will do the same thing as distutils, modifying the shebang line, but nothing else of interest in solving our Windows problems. We can run the same code as above through setuptools:

virtualenv venv
. venv/bin/activate # on Unix
python setupegg.py install
deactivate


setupegg.py just imports setuptools and runs our original setup.py script:

import setuptools

if __name__ == '__main__':


This results in the code being installed into its own egg. Thus:

• All code and the scripts go into a zip file venv/lib/python2.7/site-packages/myscripter-1.0-py2.7.egg.

• Our actual script as above is now installed into this zip file as item EGG-INFO/scripts/myscript, with shebang line modified as for the standard distutils install.

• The script that goes onto the path, venv/bin/myscript (on Unix) now has to find the script in the egg and run that. In this case it has the obscure contents:

#!/Users/mb312/dev_trees/myscripter/venv/bin/python
# EASY-INSTALL-SCRIPT: 'myscripter==1.0','myscript'
__requires__ = 'myscripter==1.0'
import pkg_resources
pkg_resources.run_script('myscripter==1.0', 'myscript')


Note the modified shebang line.

## Setuptools and console_script entry_points¶

There is another way to define scripts using setuptools, and that is by using entry_points pointing to console_scripts (see: http://packages.python.org/setuptools/setuptools.html#automatic-script-creation for detail). To use this mechanism, we move the script code into a library. We make a new library directory myscripter, add an empty file myscripter/__init__.py to identify this as a package directory, and move the code for a script into a file myscripter/commands.py like this:

import sys

def my_console_script():
print("Console python starts at " + sys.prefix)


Then we modify our setup.py:

import setuptools
from distutils.core import setup

setup(
name='myscripter',
version='1.0',
packages = ['myscripter'],
entry_points = {
'console_scripts': [
'my_console_script = myscripter.commands:my_console_script']
}
)


Notice we import setuptools at the top. This modifies (monkey-patches) distutils, imported below that. We now depend on setuptools at install time to write the console script stuff and at run time in finding the installed scripts via pkg_resources (see above and below). We run an install into a virtualenv (Unix again):

virtualenv venv
. venv/bin/activate
python setup.py install


Our console script got installed:

(venv)$my_console_script Console python starts at /Users/mb312/dev_trees/myscripter/venv/bin/..  The actual venv/bin/my_console_script file is just a wrapper for setuptools: #!/Users/mb312/dev_trees/myscripter/venv/bin/python # EASY-INSTALL-ENTRY-SCRIPT: 'myscripter==1.0','console_scripts','my_console_script' __requires__ = 'myscripter==1.0' import sys from pkg_resources import load_entry_point sys.exit( load_entry_point('myscripter==1.0', 'console_scripts', 'my_console_script')() )  So far it just seems confusing for no gain. But, on Windows, we do get an executable script: C:\repos\myscripter>virtualenv venv C:\repos\myscripter>venv\Scripts\activate (venv) C:\repos\myscripter>python setup.py install (venv) C:\repos\myscripter>my_console_script Console python starts at C:\repos\myscripter\venv  How did this happen? The installation put two files in venv\Scripts, which are my_console_script.exe and my_console_script-script.py. We recognize the contents of my_console_script-script.py: #!C:\repos\myscripter\venv\Scripts\python.exe # EASY-INSTALL-ENTRY-SCRIPT: 'myscripter==1.0','console_scripts','my_console_script' __requires__ = 'myscripter==1.0' import sys from pkg_resources import load_entry_point sys.exit( load_entry_point('myscripter==1.0', 'console_scripts', 'my_console_script')() )  This is the same (bar the shebang line) as the Unix script. The new thing is the my_console_script.exe file. This is a verbatim copy of a compiled windows binary file called cli.exe from the setuptools distribution - see Python wrappers for Windows. This exe binary detects its own name (in this case my_console_script.exe) and looks for a file <my-name>-script.py in the same directory. So in this case it looks for my_console_script-script.py. The exe file then finds the Python to use via the shebang line at the beginning of the ..-script.py file, and runs the ..-script.py file using that python. In effect the cli.exe copy my_console_script.exe implements the Unix shebang logic over my_console_script-script.py. This gets us executable scripts on windows, but it means we have an install time and a run time dependency on setuptools. The run-time dependency is because of the from pkg_resources ... line in the script file (pkg_resources is from setuptools). Personally, I find the console_script mechanism more obscure than having script files. ## Making Windows script wrappers via the distutils install-scripts phase¶ An alternative to using setuptools entry points, is to create your own windows script wrappers when you install the package. That is, you hook into the distutils install-scripts phase, identify the scripts that have been installed by the normal distutils means, and write out Windows script wrappers for each file. ### Overriding the default distutils install-scripts phase¶ The way to hook into the distutils install is to subclass the distutils install_scripts command like this: from os.path import join as pjoin from distutils.core import setup from distutils.command.install_scripts import install_scripts class my_install_scripts(install_scripts): def run(self): install_scripts.run(self) print("Doing something in install") setup( name='myscripter', version='1.0', scripts=[pjoin('bin', 'myscript')], cmdclass = {'install_scripts': my_install_scripts} )  This gets run during install obviously: $ python setup.py install
running install
running build
running build_scripts
...
changing mode of build/scripts-2.6/myscript from 644 to 755
running install_scripts
copying build/scripts-2.6/myscript -> /Users/mb312/dev_trees/myscripter/venv/bin
changing mode of /Users/mb312/dev_trees/myscripter/venv/bin/myscript to 755
Doing something in install
...


Less obviously, it gets run making a binary installer such as an egg:

\$ python setupegg.py bdist_egg
running bdist_egg
running egg_info
...
running install_lib
...
running install_scripts
running build_scripts
creating build/scripts-2.6
copying and adjusting bin/myscript -> build/scripts-2.6
changing mode of build/scripts-2.6/myscript from 644 to 755
creating build/bdist.macosx-10.5-i386/egg/EGG-INFO/scripts
copying build/scripts-2.6/myscript -> build/bdist.macosx-10.5-i386/egg/EGG-INFO/scripts
changing mode of build/bdist.macosx-10.5-i386/egg/EGG-INFO/scripts/myscript to 755
Doing something in install
...


### Different ways the installer can be run¶

To get some general mechanism working, it’s good to review all the possible ways that your script could get installed on Windows or Unix. These are:

• Direct installation from the source repository;
• Installation from a source archive (zip or tar.gz);
• Installation by double click from a binary exe installer (Windows) or mpkg installer (OSX);
• Installation by easy_install from binary exe installer (Windows) or an egg binary file (any platform);
• Installation by pip from binary .whl file (any platform).

Let’s consider the binary egg install. Here you’ve made a binary egg using python setup.py bdist_egg. You upload this to pypi or some other good place. Someone then downloads it, and installs with the equivalent of easy_install my_package_version.egg. Pip and wheels work in a very similar way.

### How to know the install-time python for a binary installer?¶

If we hook into the distutils install-scripts phase (not the easy_install phase), we saw above that this is run when we build the binary egg. That means, that the only python we know about, during the distutils install-scripts phase, is the python with which we build the egg. However, the python called within easy_install on the user’s computer, may well be at a different path, or in a virtualenv. So we can’t know, at the distutils install phase, what the eventual python path will be. There is no way of making a post-install hook for the easy_install phase on the egg file in particular. However, we can rely on the shebang line of the script being set correctly by the easy_install phase.

That means that, in order for our distutils install trick to work, we need to make a windows wrapper like the cli.exe wrapper from setuptools, that can analyze the shebang line of the installed script and call python from that.

### A fairly simple Windows bat file solution¶

Luckily that is not very hard using some simple windows batch programing. Here then is a setup.py that works with simple script files, and writes out a Windows wrapper to analyze the script file shebang line:

from __future__ import with_statement
import os
from os.path import join as pjoin, splitext, split as psplit
from distutils.core import setup
from distutils.command.install_scripts import install_scripts
from distutils import log

BAT_TEMPLATE = \
r"""@echo off
REM wrapper to use shebang first line of {FNAME}
set mypath=%~dp0
set pyscript="%mypath%{FNAME}"
set /p line1=<%pyscript%
if "%line1:~0,2%" == "#!" (goto :goodstart)
exit /b 1
:goodstart
set py_exe=%line1:~2%
call "%py_exe%" %pyscript% %*
"""

class my_install_scripts(install_scripts):
def run(self):
install_scripts.run(self)
if not os.name == "nt":
return
for filepath in self.get_outputs():
# If we can find an executable name in the #! top line of the script
# file, make .bat wrapper for script.
with open(filepath, 'rt') as fobj:
if not (first_line.startswith('#!') and
'python' in first_line.lower()):
log.info("No #!python executable found, skipping .bat "
"wrapper")
continue
pth, fname = psplit(filepath)
froot, ext = splitext(fname)
bat_file = pjoin(pth, froot + '.bat')
bat_contents = BAT_TEMPLATE.replace('{FNAME}', fname)
log.info("Making %s wrapper for %s" % (bat_file, filepath))
if self.dry_run:
continue
with open(bat_file, 'wt') as fobj:
fobj.write(bat_contents)

setup(
name='myscripter',
version='1.0',
packages=['myscripter'],
scripts=[pjoin('bin', 'myscript')],
cmdclass = {'install_scripts': my_install_scripts}
)


See the master branch of https://github.com/matthew-brett/myscripter for the full example. This seems to work for all of the installation methods above, without requiring setuptools.